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Реферат: Kazakhstan

KAZAKHSTAN, ASTANA, ALMATY.

It is situated both in Asia and in Europe. The territory of it’s as largest as the territories of Italy, Spain, France, Portugal and Greece taken together. Kazakhstan borders on Kirgizia, Uzbikistan, Turkministan in the south, China in the east and Russia in the north. There are a lot of hills, mountains on its territory. The greatest of them are the Alatow,
Tian-Shian mountains, besides there are long rivers in my country. The main rivers are the Ural, the Irtysh, the Tobol, the Syrdaria. The Kaspian sea, the largest lake in the world is situated in my country too. Besides this famous lake there are such lakes as the Balhash, the Issyck-Kul. The Aral sea is situated in Kazakhstan too. Some years ago, is was large and beatiful, and nowadays the government of Kazakhstan suffers about the Aral sea’s future. Many people, hearing about Kazakhstan, think about steppes and villages, but it’s not true. I think, our president is to do something for glory of our country, cause some people don’t know, where my country is, it’s bad. In the north of Kazakhstan, winters are very cold and summers are very hot, and there are more rains in the north and east of Kazakhstan, but in the south there almost no rains. Kazakhstan has coal, oil, gas, gold and other minerals, which now are richening. Coal industry is developed in
Mangyshlack. Chemical industry is highly developed in Tshymkent and
Karaganda. Agriculture is also developed in my country. Fruits, vegetables are grown here. Cattle farming and sheep farming are very important here too. The population of Kazakhstan more than 16 million people. My country is a multinational state. More than one hundred nationalities live here.
Kazakhstan is an independent state, it got it’s independence on 16 of
December in 1995 year. It’s new constitution was adopted in 1993 on 28th of
January. The first president of our state is Nazarbaev. The flag of
Kazakhstan consists of 2 color: yellow and blue. There is an eagle in the center and kazakh ornament in the left. The eagle flyes under the sun, which mean the freedom of country. The capitol of our country is Astana, it became a capitol in 1998, after Almaty. Almaty is a city of a million people, a big administrative economic and cultural center of my country.
One can observe the entire city from the top of the hill Zailiiskiy Alatay.
Almaty is known for highly developed engineering, metal-working, wood- working, light, food and printing industries. Machines made at the Almaty
Heavy Machine Building plant are supplied to scores of foreign countries.
Almaty today is a city of higher schools and research institutes. Over
100000 young people attend the higher and secondary specialized schools.
Rich is the cultural life of the city. The theatre has become an important part of the city’s life. Every night there go on the lights of the national opera, the Kazakh and Russian dramas, the Korean, the Young audience
Theatre, the Concert halls get crowded. The biggest book depository here is the Pushkin library. Almaty is a garden city: the city especially nice in spring when everything is in blossom. The evening cool of the summer and the mountain breeze invite you for a walk about the streets, boulevards and square of the city. Autumn is beautiful with golden leaves and aroma of
Apart apples. Winter in the city, though not lasting, but frosty and snowy is beautiful too. Practically every Almaty teenager goes skating and skiing at this season of the year, the high attitude “Medeu” skating-ring is admirable the whole year round. This sports complex is known all over the world. It meets it guests with warm and sun, presents them with happy laughter of children. It grows better year by year. And now about Astana:
Astana is the capitol of Kazakhstan. First, it called Tselinograd, then
Akmola and now Astana, cause Astana means capitol in Kazakh. It is the center of Akmola region. It was founded as Tselinograd in 1960s. Now Astana is a great administrative industrial and scientific center. It is the sit of the parliament government and the president of our country. The population of the city is more than 277.000 people. Since Astana has become the capitol of the country mane new multistoried buildings are constantly appear here. I didn’t visit Astana, but I want, cause people say, that after becoming a capitol it became a great city. Other largest cities are:
Aktobe, Karaganda, Semipolatinsk. Kazakhstan is country, where I was born and I live here for the length of my life. We are proud of our country believe in its future.


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