Топик: Educational System in Great Britain, USA and Ukraine
1. Educational System in Great Britain
Types of Schools
All British children must stay at school from the age of 5 until they
are 16. Many of them stay longer and take final examination when they are
17 or 18. Before 1965 all children had to go through special intelligence
tests. There were different types of state secondary schools and at the age
of 11 children went to different schools in accordance of with the results
of the tests.
State schools are divided into the following types: - Grammar schools. Children who go to grammar schools are usually those who show a preference for academic subjects, although many grammar schools now also have some technical courses. - Technical schools. Some children go to technical schools. Most courses there are either commercial or technical. - Modern schools. Boys and girls who are interested in working with there hands and learning in a practical way can go to a technical schools and learn some trade. - Comprehensive schools. These schools usually combine all types of secondary education. They have physic, chemistry, biology laboratories, machine workshops for metal and woodwork and also geography, history and art departments, commercial and domestic courses.
There are also many schools which the State doesn’t control. They are
private schools. They charge fees for educating children and many of them
are boarding schools, at which pupils live during the term time.
After leaving school many young people go to colleges or further
education. Those who become students at Colleges of Technology (called
“Techs”) come from different schools at different ages between 15 and 17.
The lectures at such colleges, each an hour long, start at 8,15 and end at
4,45 in the afternoon.
Schooling is voluntary under the age of 5 but there is some free
nursery school education before that age. Primary education takes place in
infant schools for pupils ages from 5 to 7 years old and junior schools
(from 8 to 11 years). Some areas have different systems in which middle
schools replace junior schools and take pupils ages from 9 to 11 years.
Secondary education has been available in Britain since 1944. It is
compulsory up to the age of 16, and pupils can stay at school voluntarily
up to three years longer.
In 1965 non-selective comprehensive schools were introduced. Most local
education authorities were have now completely changed over to
At the age of 16 pupils take school-leaving examinations in several
subjects at the Ordinary level. The exam used to be conducted by eight
independent examining boards, most of them connected with the university.
This examination could also be taken by candidates at a further education
establishment. This exam was called the General Certificate of Education
(GCE). Pupils of comprehensive school had taken the examination called the
Certificate of Secondary Education either with or instead of the GCE.
A GCE of Advanced (“A”) level was taken two years after the Ordinary
level exam. It was the standard for entrance to university and to many
forms of professional training. In 1988 both examinations were replaced by
the more or less uniform General Certificate of Secondary Education.
The private sector is running parallel to the state system of
education. There are over 2500 fee-charging independent schools in GB. Most
private schools are single-sex until the age of 16. More and more parents
seem prepared to take on the formidable extra cost of the education. The
reason is the believe that social advantages are gained from attending a
certain school. The most expansive day or boarding schools in Britain are
exclusive public schools like Eton college for boys and St. James’ school
Universities and Colleges in Great Britain.
There are over 90 universities in GB. They are divided into three
types: the old universities (Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities),
in the 19th century universities, such as London and Manchester
universities, and the new universities. Some years ago there were also
polytechnics. After graduating from polytechnic a student got a degree, but
it was not a university degree. 31 formers polytechnics were given
university status in 1992.
Full courses of study offer the degree of Bachelor of Art or Science.
Most degree courses at universities last three years, language courses 4
years (including year spent aboard). Medicine and dentistry courses are
longer (5-7 years).
Students may receive grants from the Local Education Authority to help
pay for books, accommodation, transport, and food. This grant depends on
the income of their parents.
Most students live away from home, in flats of halls of residence.
Students don’t usually have a job during term time because the lessons
called lectures, seminars, classes of tutorials (small groups), are full
time. However, many students now have to work in the evenings.
University life is considered «an experience». The exams are
competitive but the social life and living away from home are also
important. The social life is excellent with a lot of clubs, parties,
There are not only universities in Britain but also colleges. Colleges
offer courses in teacher training, courses in technology and some
professions connected with medicine.
2. Educational System in the USA
General Pattern of Education in the USA
The general pattern of education in the USA is an eight-year elementary
school, followed by a four-year high school. This has been called 8—4 plan
organization. It is proceeded, in many localities, by nursery schools and
kindergartens. It is followed by a four-year college and professional
schools. This traditional pattern, however, has been varied in many
different ways. The 6—3— 3 plan consists of a six-year elementary school, a
three-year junior high school, and a three-year senior high school. Another
variation is a 6—6 plan organization, with a six-year elementary school
followed by a six-year secondary school.
American education provides a program for children, beginning at the
age of 6 and continuing up to the age of 16 in some of the states, and to
18 in others.
The elementary school in the United States is generally considered to
include the first six or eight grades of the common-school system,
depending upon the organization that has been accepted for the secondary
school. It has been called the "grade school" or the "grammar school".
There is no single governmental agency to prescribe for the
American school system, different types of organization and of curriculum
are tried out.
The length of the school year varies among the states. Wide variation
exists also in the length of the school day. A common practice is to have
school in session from 9:00 to 12:00 in the morning and from 1:00 to 3:30
in the afternoon, Monday through Friday. The school day for the lower
grades is often from 30 minutes to an hour shorter. Most schools require
some homework to be done by elementary pupils. Elementary Schools, High
Schools and Institutions of Higher Learning
Elementary Schools, High Schools and Institutions of
There are eight years of elementary schooling. The elementary school is
followed by four years of secondary school, or high school. Often the last
two years of elementary and the first years of secondary school are
combined into a junior high school.
The school year is nine months in length, beginning early in September
and sometimes a shorter one in spring. There are slight variations from
place to place. Students enter the first grade at the age of six and
attendance is compulsory in most states until the age of sixteen or until
the student has finished the eighth grade.
The elementary schools tend to be small. The high schools are generally
larger and accommodate pupils from four or five elementary schools. A small
town generally has several elementary schools and one high school. In some
rural communities the one-room country school house still exists. Here may
be found from five to twenty-five pupils in grades one through eight, all
taught by the same teacher.
Admission to the American high school is automatic on completion of the
elementary school. During the four-year high school program the student
studies four or five major subjects per year, and classes in each of these
subjects meet for an hour a day, five days a week. In addition, the student
usually has classes in physical education, music, and art several times a
week. If he fails a course, he repeats only that course and not the work of
the entire year. Students must complete a certain number of courses in
order to receive a diploma, or a certificate of graduation.
Institutions of higher learning supported by public funds are not
absolutely free. The state colleges and universities charge a fee for
tuition or registration. This fee is higher for those who come from outside
the state. Working one's way through college is commonplace.
Usually there is no admission examination required by a state
university for those who have finished high school within the state.
Sometimes a certain pattern of high school studies is necessary, however,
and some state universities require a certain scholastic average, or
average of high school grades.
Private colleges and universities, especially the larger, well-known
ones such as Harvard, Princeton, and Yale, have rigid scholastic
requirements for entrance, including an examination.
Higher Education Institutions
It has become common for the college program to be divided into broad
fields, such as languages and literature, the social sciences, the sciences
and mathematics, and the fine arts .Many colleges require all freshmen and
sophomores to take one or two full-year courses in each of three fields.
Certain Courses, such as English or history, may be required for all, with
some election permitted in the other fields.
Higher educational institutions usually are governed by a board of
regents or a board of trustees.
The executive head of a college or a university is usually called the
president. The various colleges or schools which take up a university are
headed by deans. Within a school or college there may be departments
according to subject matter fields, each of which may be headed by a
professor who is designated as department head or chairman. Other members
of the faculty hold academic ranks, such as instructor, assistant
professor, associate professor, and professor. Graduate students who give
some part-time service may be designated as graduate assistants or fellows.
Professional education in fields such as agriculture, dentistry, law,
engineering, medicine, pharmacy, teaching, etc. is pursued in professional
schools which may be part of a university or may be separate institutions
which confine their instruction to a single profession. Often two, three,
or four years of pre-professional liberal arts education are required
before admission to a professional school. Three to five years of
specialized training lead to professional degrees such as Doctor of
Medicine, Bachelor of Law, etc.
Private and State Colleges and Universities
Harvard College was established in 1636, with the principal purpose of
providing a literate ministry1 for colonial churches. It was a small
institution, enrolling only 20 students in 1642 and 60 in 1660. It soon
became more than a theological training school2 and established itself as a
liberal arts college. The next institution of higher learning established
in the American colonies was the College of William and Mary, which opened
in 1693 at Williamsburg, Virginia. Other colleges were founded in the next
century, but all of them remained small schools for long periods. Students
entered at the age of 14 and remained until they were 18, and the
curriculum, while rigidly academic and classic was by modern standards
rather secondary in nature.
Private colleges and universities were established in various states.
The first state university was the University of Virginia, founded in 1819.
Some state universities have large endowment funds1 which provide a
substantial portion of their support. Other sources of income are student
fees, gifts and endowments.
In general, higher education in the USA may be divided into two broad
fields: liberal arts and professional. Each of these fields may be further
subdivided into undergraduate and graduate levels. The liberal arts
program, on the undergraduate level, may be a two-year junior college
course, or a four-year course leading to a degree of Bachelor of Arts or
Bachelor of Science. The four-year course is usually subdivided into a
lower division (which may be called the junior college), consisting of the
two first years, and the upper division, which is the last two years. The
first two years continue the general education and specialization begins in
the third year.
3. Educational System in Ukraine.
Ukrainians have always shown a great concern for education. The right
to education is stated in the constitution of Ukraine. It’s ensured by
compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools and higher education
establishment. It is also ensured by the development of extramural and
evening courses and the system of state scholarship and grants.
Education in Ukraine is compulsory up to the 9th form inclusive. The
stages of compulsory schooling in Ukraine are: primary education for ages 6-
7 to 9-10 inclusive; and senior school for ages 10-11 to 12-13 inclusive,
and senior school for ages 13-14 to 14-15 inclusive. If a pupil of
secondary school wishes to go on in higher education, he or she must stay
at school for two more years. Primary and secondary school together
comprise 11 years of study. Every school has a «core curriculum» of
academic subjects, such as…
After finishing the 9th form one can go on to a vocational school which
offer programmes of academic subjects and a programme of training in a
technical field, or a profession.
After finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a
gymnasium one can go into higher education. All applicants must take
competitive exam. Higher education institution, that is institutes or
universities, offer a 5-years programme of academic subjects for
undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a graduate course and
writes a thesis, he or she receives a candidates degree or a doctoral
Higher educational establishments are headed by Rectors. Protectors are
in charge of academic and scientific work. An institute or a university has
a number of faculties, each specializing councils which confer candidate
and doctoral degrees.
The system of higher and secondary education in Ukraine is going trough
a transitional period. The main objectives of the reforms are: to
decentralize the higher education system, to develop a new financial
mechanism, to give more academic freedom to faculties and students. All
secondary schools, institutes and universities until recently have been
funded by the state. Now there is quite a number of private fee-paying
primary and secondary schools, some universities have fee-paying
4. Results of Interrogation in Our Class
|How do you evaluate | Like |Don’t like |Indifferent |
|the following |(number of |(number of |(number of |
| |pupils) |pupils) |pupils) |
|School | 27 | 6 | 3 |
|Subjects: | | | |
| Literature | 21 | 5 | 12 |
| Mathematics | 11 | 23 | 5 |
| History | 19 | 7 | 12 |
| Geography | 29 | 6 | 3 |
| Biology | 23 | 10 | 6 |
| English | 32 | 4 | 2 |
| Music | 25 | 12 | 2 |
| Art | 20 | 11 | 8 |
|Out-of-class activities | 24 | 4 | 11 |
|Sports/Gym classes | 22 | 13 | 4 |
|School library | 27 | 10 | 2 |
|School canteen | 23 | 3 | 13 |
|Learning to get along with | 25 | 9 | 5 |
|others | | | |
|Making friends | 34 | 0 | 5 |
5. Used Literature:
1. Educational System in Great Britain
. Types of Schools
. British Schools
. Universities and Colleges in Great Britain
2.Educational System in the USA
. General Pattern of Education in the USA
. Elementary Schools, High Schools and Institutions of Higher learning
. Higher Education Institutions
. Private and State Colleges
3. Educational System in Ukraine
4. Results of Interrogation in Our Class
5. Used Literature
Educational System in Great Britain, USA and Ukraine.